24
Aug

Right to privacy judgment: SC says sexual orientation essential attribute of privacy and must be protected

Right to privacy judgment: SC says sexual orientation essential attribute of privacy and must be protected

The Supreme Court verdict said that the right to privacy is a fundamental right scored the hope of the gay and LGBT community that was hit by the same court when it criminalized sex between two consenting adults of the same sex and withdrew it from the Scope of application of Article 377.

In today’s trial, the apex court found that privacy protection basically preserves personal privacy and that sexual orientation is an essential attribute of privacy. The court held that the protection of identity and the protection of sexual orientation were covered by the fundamental rights established in articles 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution.

“The purpose of elevating certain rights in the stature of fundamental rights is to isolate their major disdain for exercise, whether legislative or popular.

The guarantee of constitutional rights does not depend on its exercise favorably considered by the majority opinion “he told the court, adding that” Koushal’s purpose that some processing is not an index Rape is wrong and can not be Accepted “.

The Supreme Court added that “discrimination against an individual on the basis of sexual orientation is deeply offensive to the dignity and self-esteem of the individual.

Equality requires that the sexual orientation of every individual in society be protected on a uniform platform. The right to privacy and the protection of sexual orientation is at the heart of the fundamental rights guaranteed by articles 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution. ”

Although the Supreme Court in its earlier ruling adopted a majority opinion, the last ruling held that popular acceptance can not be the basis for the ignorance of rights.
The court reconsidered its earlier ruling in the case of the Suresh Kumar Vs. Naz to take advantage of his decision.

The case was decided in Delhi High Court and later filed before the Supreme Court of India. The Delhi High Court has ruled that article 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), while penalizing sexual acts consented to by adults in private, was contrary to the fundamental rights guaranteed by articles 14 (equality before the law ) 15 (prohibition of discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth) and 21 (Protection of life and personal liberty) of the Constitution.

The Supreme Court stated that Article 377 continue to govern non-consensual penis sex, non-vaginal sex and non-minor penis involves vaginal.
The Supreme Court held that section 377 denied the dignity of an individual and criminalized his basic identity on the basis of his sexuality, adding that he also violated article 14 of homosexuals as a class.
“The scope of privacy allows individuals to develop human relationships without the interference of the outside or state community,” adding that “in the Constitution of India, the right to live with dignity and the right to privacy are recognized as The dimensions of Article 21 … “, said the High Court.

24
Aug

Cyborg bacteria can harvest solar energy to produce fuel

Cyborg bacteria can harvest solar energy to produce fuel

Los Angeles: Scientists have created cyborg bacteria – microbes covered with tiny, highly efficient solar panels – that are better than plants for harnessing the Sun’s energy to produce fuel from carbon dioxide and water.

Photosynthesis provides energy for the vast majority of life on earth. However, chlorophyll, the green pigment that plants use to collect sunlight, is relatively ineffective.

To allow humans to capture more of the sun’s energy than natural photosynthesis, scientists have taught bacteria to cover themselves in small, highly efficient solar panels to produce useful compounds.
“Instead of relying on ineffective chlorophyll in sunlight harvesting, I taught how bacteria grow and cover their bodies with tiny semiconductor nanocrystals,” said Kelsey K Sakimoto, University of California, Berkeley In the United States.

“These nanocrystals are much more effective than chlorophyll and can be grown at a fraction of the cost of fabricated solar panels,” Sakimoto said.

Humans are always looking to find alternatives to fossil fuels as a source of energy and raw materials for chemical production.

Many scientists have been working to create artificial photosynthetic systems to generate renewable energy and simple organic chemicals that use sunlight.

Progress has been made, but the systems are not efficient enough for the commercial production of fuels and raw materials.

New research focuses on the operation of inorganic semiconductors that can capture sunlight for organisms such as bacteria that can then use energy to produce useful chemicals from carbon dioxide and water.

Scientists working with a natural bacteria, non-photosynthetic, thermoacetic Moorella, which in the normal course of respiration, the product of acetic acid from carbon dioxide (CO2).

Acetic acid is a versatile chemical that can be easily converted into various fuels, polymers, pharmaceuticals and basic chemicals through complementary and genetically modified bacteria.

Researchers fed cadmium and the amino acid cysteine, which contains a sulfur atom, bacteria, have been synthesized cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles, which function as solar panels on their surfaces.

The hybrid body, M thermoacetic-CdS, product of acetic acid from CO2, water and light.

“Once covered with these small solar panels, bacteria can synthesize food, fuel and plastics, all use of solar energy,” Sakimoto said.

“These bacteria outnumber natural photosynthesis,” he said.

Bacteria operate in more than 80% and the process is self-replicating and self-healing, making the waste technology zero.

“Synthetic biology and the possibility of expanding the range of CO2 reduction products will be essential to put the technology in place, or one of the many substitutes for the petrochemical industry,” Sakimoto said.